Epsteinbarr virus ebv is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, affecting 90% of the adult population. High prevalence of lynx rufus gammaherpesvirus 1 in wild. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease in miniature swine. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders ptlds are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative diseases that arise after transplantation of solid organ and other tissues. Both viruses also cause lymphoproliferative disorders, such as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease ptld for ebv and mcd for kshv. Gammaherpesviruses may be a cause of chronic fibrotic lung diseases in humans and in animals. Hinrichs c, wendland s, zimmermann h, eurich d, neuhaus r, schlattmann p, babel n, riess h, gartner b, anagnostopoulos i. They arise secondary to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs given to prevent transplant rejection. Introduction to the lymphoproliferative disorders oxford. Ebv is found in nonhodgkin and hodgkin lymphomas, as well as in lymphoproliferative disorders, which occur more commonly but not exclusively in individuals with immunodeficiency. Gammaherpesvirinae an overview sciencedirect topics.
Spectrum from polymorphic proliferations resembling polymorphic posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders pptld to cases that fulfill the criteria for diffuse large b cell lymphoma, other b cell lymphomas, peripheral tnk cell lymphomas or classical hodgkin lymphoma. Gammaherpesvirus infection results in a number of lymphoproliferative disorders and malignancies, some of which are specifically of bcell origin. Jan 23, 2015 epsteinbarr virus ebv is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, affecting 90% of the adult population. Hivassociated lymphomas and gammaherpesviruses blood. Epsteinbarr virus ebv, human papillomavirus hpv, kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus kshv, human tcell. Lymphoproliferative disorders are the second most common malignancy after kaposis sarcoma ks in hivaids.
However, the gammaherpesviruses are responsible for a variety of lymphoproliferative and neoplastic disorders. Several viruses with different replication mechanisms contribute to oncogenesis by both direct and indirect mechanisms in immunosuppressed subjects after solid organ transplantation, after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, or with human immunodeficiency virus hiv infection. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease ptld is a major complication of current clinical. Human herpesvirus 4 an overview sciencedirect topics. Primary epsteinbarr virus ebv infection or reactivation due to a state of immune dysregulation along with.
For example, cattle exhibit the fatal lymphoproliferative disease, malignant catarrhal fever, as a consequence of infection with. Ebv, the etiological agent of infectious mononucleosis, is associated with lym. Ptlds are seen after both solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplants though the incidence is much higher in the former. The viruses cause a range of disease conditions in humans and animals, such as lymphoproliferative disorders, including lymphoma and nonlymphoid cancers ackermann 2006. Kaposis sarcoma and kaposis sarcomaassociated herpesvirus. Lymphoproliferative disorders lpd occur more frequently in the immunosuppressed host compared to those who are immunocompetent. Others, like primary effusion lymphoma and polymorphic posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder are rarely seen outside the context of a specific. Epstein barr virus ebv, formally designated as human. During lytic infection, gammaherpesviruses manipulate host gene expression to. Background the epsteinbarr virus ebv and kaposis sarcoma associated herpesvirus kshv are consistently associated with lymphoproliferative diseases and cancers in humans, notably in patients with hiv. Activity and mechanism of action of hdvd, a novel pyrimidine. Risk factors, diagnosis, and management of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Previously, we identified several novel ghvs in north american felids, however a ghv had never been identified in canada lynx lynx canadensis. Pdf lymphoproliferative disease in mice infected with murine.
The role of gammaherpesviruses in cancer pathogenesis. Epsteinbarr viruspositive tnkcell lymphoproliferative disorders. Jan 24, 2014 gammaherpesviruses and lymphoproliferative disorders gammaherpesviruses and lymphoproliferative disorders cesarman, ethel 20140124 00. Identification of a novel gammaherpesvirus in canada lynx.
Ebv drives proliferation of lpds via expression of the viral latent genes and many preclinical and clinical studies have shown ebvassociated lpds can be treated by exploiting the viral life cycle. Similar to ptld, iatrogenic immunodeficiencyassociated lymphoproliferative disorders have been reported in patients who had been treated with purine analogue fludarabine, pentostatin or. We therefore hypothesized the existence of an unidentified ghv in lynx. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders fact sheet highlights y system. The emerging transformed cells resemble primary effusion lymphomas, the malignancies that frequently harbor both viruses in humans.
Tcell lymphoproliferative disorders that have been reported to be ebv associated include a subset of peripheral tcell lymphomas. Epsteinbarr virusassociated tnatural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases often have. The gammaherpesviruses, including hvs, ebv, kshv, and rrv, are capable of establishing latent infection in lymphocytes. Frontiers opportunities to target the life cycle of epstein. Epsteinbarr virusdriven lymphomagenesis in the context of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Evidence for the presence of ghvs in felid species has 52 included detection of a ghv dna sequence in an african lion ehlers et al. Understanding the viral associations in specific lymphoproliferative disorders and the molecular mechanisms of viral oncogenesis will lead to better. Pdf posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders ptlds are a group of diseases that range from benign polyclonal to malignant monoclonal lymphoid. Ebv targets blymphocytes and achieves latent infection in a circular episomal form. Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder springerlink. Pdf murine gammaherpesvirus is a natural pathogen of wild rodents. The human gammaherpesviruses are able to establish a lifelong, persistent infection in immunocompetent hosts 11.
Epsteinbarr viruspositive tnkcell lymphoproliferative. In the laboratory it establishes an infection of epithelial cells and. Recent insights in the pathogenesis of posttransplantation. Gammaherpesviruses and lymphoproliferative disorders. Hv68, or muhv4, are b celltropic pathogens that each encode at least 12 micrornas mirnas. Mar 16, 2019 gammaherpesviruses ghvs infect many animal species and are associated with lymphoproliferative disorders in some.
How i treat posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders. Using degenerate nested and subsequently virusspecific pcr. Many lymphoproliferative disorders lpds are considered ebv associated based on detection of the virus in tumor tissue. Request pdf gammaherpesviruses and lymphoproliferative disorders epsteinbarr virus ebv and kaposis sarcoma herpesvirus kshv, formally designated human herpesvirus 4 hhv4 and 8 hhv8.
Il6 and il10 in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders development and maintenance. Sep 17, 2019 posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder is an extremely fatal complication arising in transplant recipients as a side effect of immunosuppression. Epsteinbarr virus ebv and kaposis sarcoma herpesvirus kshv, formally designated human herpesvirus 4 hhv4 and 8 hhv8, respectively, are viruses that can cause a variety of cancers in humans. Evidence for the presence of ghvs in felid species has included detection of a ghv dna sequence in an african lion panthera leo. It offers an entire scientific dictionary protecting s of phrases and expressions with regards to cancer. For kshv, a number of noncoding rnas ncrna have been found, including 12 mirnas 16, 17 that are variably detected during latency 18, 19, and the polyadenylated nuclear. Human gammaherpesviruses viraemia in hiv infected patients. A novel porcine gammaherpesvirus was identified in involved tissues. Three main pathologic subsetsstages of evolution are recognised. Lymphoproliferative disorders lpd and other tumors b cell lymphomas in immunocompromised patients, clinically very different from burkitts lymphoma, sometimes follow ebv primary infection or reactivation. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis lyg is an ebvassociated angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disease that can result in bcell lymphomas 21 25. Two lymphotropic human gamma herpesviruses can cause lymphoproliferative disorders. Gammaherpesvirus and lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients.
The human gammaherpesviruses epsteinbarr virus ebv and kaposis sarcomaassociated herpesvirus kshv have a tropism for lymphocytes and are capable of inducing a variety of lymphoproliferative disorders 2. Jan 23, 2015 epsteinbarr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, can induce both lytic and latent infections that result in a variety of human diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders in neuronal. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection of ifn cancer research. Ebv associated bcell lymphoproliferative disorders.
The subfamily gammaherpesvirinae includes several other viruses that cause lymphomas in heterologous primate hosts e. Gammaherpesviruses and lymphoproliferative disorders, annual. Identification of novel gammaherpesviruses in ocelots. Lymphoproliferative disorders occur when the normal mechanisms of control of proliferation of lymphocytes break down, resulting in autonomous, uncontrolled proliferation of lymphoid cells and typically leading to lymphocytosis andor lymphadenopathy, and sometimes to involvement of extranodal sites, e. Clinicopathologic features of major types of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders are summarised in table 2. Acentralroleforstat3in gammaherpesviruslifecycle anddiseases. Feb 06, 2016 however, the gammaherpesviruses are responsible for a variety of lymphoproliferative and neoplastic disorders. The classification of ptlds is currently based on the who classification of lymphoid neoplasms table 3. There is a striking similarity between viral loads in ebvhiv coinfection patients and cats with fcaghv1fiv coinfection. A 19yearold woman with endstage renal failure due to congenital kidney disease underwent a livingdonor renal transplant in 2006. Gammaherpesviruses and lymphoproliferative disorders gammaherpesviruses and lymphoproliferative disorders cesarman, ethel 20140124 00. Risk factors, diagnosis, and management of posttransplant.
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders europe pmc. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders ptlds are a group of diseases that range from benign polyclonal to malignant monoclonal lymphoid proliferations. Gammaherpesviruses and lymphoproliferative disorders annual. It is predicted that these regulatory rnas facilitate infection by suppressing host target genes involved in a wide range of key cellular pathways.
A posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder has been described in. These include 1 malignantclonal in nature, resulting from the. Aims our aim was to evaluate whether ebv andor kshv viral loads regularly assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells pbmc correlate with clinical or laboratorial parameters. The biological and clinical characteristics of a particular lpd are specific to the underlying immune defect, though there are clear similarities in the various tumor types that occur. Virusencoded micrornas facilitate gammaherpesvirus latency. Treatment for ghvrelated lymphoproliferative disease provides many challenges for the aids patient. Ebv has been implicated in the development of a wide range of bcell lymphoproliferative disorders, including bl, classic hodgkin lymphoma hl, and lymphomas arising in immunocompromised individuals posttransplantation and hivassociated lymphoproliferative disorders. Pathology outlines other iatrogenic immunodeficiency. Immunodeficiencyassociated viral oncogenesis clinical. Gammaherpesvirus and lymphoproliferative disorders in. It consists of the tissues and organs that a lymphoproliferative disorder is a disease in which cells of the lymphatic system grow uncontrollably.243 1445 204 128 606 1362 1006 293 767 1221 406 1434 1012 115 1432 973 181 1301 905 570 928 1031 1261 609 103 445 496 465 327 350 85 1261 1076 189